ZOOLOG I C7=^L GT^RDeNS
K N 0~ 7=^ 17=^ P- O R,
BOSTON — 7=^N T^PPeT^L
PROPOSED MARINE AQUARIUM AND PARK, SOUTH BOSTON
3[quarta for Bositon
Boston g^ociet? of JSatural %)iQtox^
By The Boston Society of Natural Histobt
Clje dnbcr^igncb heartily commend this enterprise to the support of the Citizens of Boston
and Vicinity :
FREDERICK L. AMES.
WILLIAM STURGIS BIGELOW.
CHARLES P. BOWDITCH.
T. O. H. P. BURNIIAM.
J. ELLIOT CABOT.
ELIOT C. CLARKE.
STEPHEN M. CROSBY.
RICHARD H. DANA.
JOHN W. DICKINSON.
CHARLES W. ELIOT.
WILLIAM ENDICOTT, Jr.
WILLIAM H. FORBES.
ALPHEUS H. HARDY.
THOMAS N. HART.
HENRY L. HIGGINSON.
THOS. WENTWORTII HIGGINSON.
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES.
EDWARD A. HORTON.
HENRY O. HOUGHTON.
MARTIN P. KENNARD.
JONATHAN A. LANE.
FRANCIS C. LOWELL.
MORTIMER B. MASON.
NATHAN MATTHEWS, Jr.
FRANCIS A. OSBORN.
HENRY L. PIERCE.
M. D. ROSS.
WILLIAM E. RUSSELL.
C. S. SARGENT.
JOSHUA M. SEARS.
EDWIN P. SEAVER.
H. P. WALCOTT.
FRANCIS A. WALKER.
SAMUEL D. WARREN.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. Chib;„un. ALPHEUS HYATT.
HENRY P. BOWDITCH. CHARLES W. SCUDDER.
WILLIAM G. FARLOW. WILLIAM T. SEDGWICK.
EDAVARD G. GARDINER, Secretarij.
CONTENTS AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
View of proposed Marine Aquarium and Park Frontispiece.
COMMENDERS OF THE ENTERPRISE .... Page 5
Board of Directors 6
Zoological Gardens and Aquaria for Boston . . 9
Head of Caribou, 9 ; Head of Fox, 10 ; Owl, 11 ; Bear's
Head, 12 ; Sketch Map of Boston, showing the position
of the Natural History Gardens, 13.
The New England Zoological Garden at Franklin
Bison, 15 ; in the Forest, IG ; Squirrel, 17 ; the Stickle-
back and its Nest, 18.
The Fresh-Water Aquarium at Ward's Pond . . 19
Heron, 19 ; Flamingo, 20 ; Beaver, 21 ; an Unibellula
(the slender figure), 22; alialf-grown Molaeanthus
(the central figure), 22 ; Ground Plan of Marine Park
and Aquarium, 24.
The Marine Aquarium at City Point . . .25
A Young Fisliing-Frog, Lophius, 25 ; an Angler, Anten-
narius, 2G ; a Sea- Worm, 28 ; a Melanocetiis, which swal-
lows fishes of twice its length, 29 ; a Sea-Hor.se clasping
with its tail a broken conch-shell, while its young pass
in and out the pouch, 30.
Conditions under which they can be established . 31
Head of Male Moose, 31 ; a Gorgonian, called Chryso-
gorgia, 32 ; a Porcupine, 33 ; an Eagle, 34.
The Boston Society of Natural History their
Proper Guardian . 35
Red Deer, Buck, 35 ; View of some of the Tanks in the
Naples Aquarium, 3G ; Red Deer, Doe, 38.
Public Advantages to be gained . . . .39
Sternoptyx diaphana, 39 ; an Antijiathes, with the cen-
tral hollow column occupied by an Aimelid, 40 ; a Sea-
Gull, 41 ; Wolf's Head, 42.
Will Boston respond ? 43
An Octopus, or Cuttle-Fish, 43 ; Deer, 44 ; Jelly-Fish,
45 ; Wild Ducks in Flight, 4G.
Council of the' Boston Society of Natural History 47
*jif* The design of the cover is arranged by Mrs. Whitman ; the
illustrations of animals are lent by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
HE Reports of the Park Commis-
sioners and of the Natural History
Society have informed the pnbhc
from time to time of certain move-
ments on foot to secure for Boston suitable
Zoological Gardens and Aquaria. It is the pur-
pose of this circular to announce the comple-
tion of the general plans, and to show the prac-
ticability and desirability of establishing- these
institutions under the most favorable auspices.
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
These plans have been worked out with the
greatest care by those most famiHar with such
estabhshments elsewhere, and most competent
to judge how they can be developed to serve
the best interests of the community. Foreign
institutions have been copied only so far as
they are best adapted to our wants, and at
every step the interests of the general public
and of education have been independently stud-
ied, as well as the best methods of exhibiting
natural objects and their modes of life.
The establishment is to be divided into three
distinct departments, in accordance with a natu-
ral distribution of organic forms; and incident-
ally a great advantage will thereby be gained,
since the inhabitants of different parts of the
city Avill be brought into near proximity to some
part of the ground occupied. These three
divisions are to be placed at Franklin Park, in
the neighborhood of Jamaica Pond, and at City
THE NEW ENGLAND ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN AT FRANKLIN PARK
HIS is to be installed on the city side
of tlie Playstead at Fvanklin Park in
, a cliarniino- bit of rocky woodland of
about twenty acres with very diversified surface,
called Long" Crouch Woods, a piece of land
which, on account of its lack of water, is only
suitable for the exhibition of terrestrial and
aerial animals. A collection of tropical or sub-
tropical quadrupeds and other vertebrates could
not be kept up here without an exjienditure
far too great to be inidertaken in the initiation
of an enterprise as varied and extensive as the
present. It is deemed best, therefore, to ex-
hibit fully only the animals of the North Tern-
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AJ^
perate zone of America, and thus to display
to the best advantage those which one might
see within the northern United States. As it is
easier to obtain and maintain the animals from
near home, by far the larger part of this col-
lection will at all times be made up of those now
or once natives of New England ; but side by
side with our native animals a few of the cor-
responding types from other quarters of the
globe will be shown, in order to illustrate some
of the more important features of the general
distribution of life on the earth.
An Insectary is also proposed in connection
with this division, in which the transforma-
tions of our larger insects can be seen, and
their ways of life, many of which are very in-
teresting, can be followed ; ants can be made
to reveal to the curious visitor their hidden ways
and to teach wisdom, and the processes of ex-
AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
perimentation for scientific purposes can be
made intelligible to the public.
Much of this will be an object of interest
only or mainly during the warmer season, but
a winter garden under glass is also projected,
where one may walk in a comfortable, well-
lighted inclosure in which the varied vegeta-
tion, the ponds and fountains with their in-
habitants, the songs of birds, and the pleasing
habits of curious strange creatures will tend
to make him forget the wintry surroundings.
THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM AT WARD'S POND
PIECE of land adjoining" Ward's
Pond north of Jamaica Pond, and
covering abont fourteen acres, with
ample room and opportunities for ponds and
running water, has been secured for the Fresh-
Water Aquarium, which will include not sim-
ply creatures that inhabit the water, but also
those which live upon or near its banks. A
Fish-hatchery may have its place here, and also
a small Insectary to illustrate the transforma-
tions of those insects which are aquatic in early
life, but afterwards crawl up the stems of water
plants, and by means o£ curious changes of
structure finally become suited for flying in
Fresh-water animals and plants are modified
descendants either of marine or terrestrial or-
ganisms, and it is intended to exhibit this
striking but rarely considered fact by series of
living objects side by side. Even the steps of
the transformations by which certain shrimp-
like, brine-inhabiting animals become fitted for
living in fresh water can be directly exhibited
in a series of aquaria. The educational value
of such displays, which have not, so far as we
know, been attempted in similar popular ex-
hibitions, is obvious.
This division of the Garden does not require
strict limitation, and there will be room enough
to make the display of animals sufficiently ex-
tensive to include not a few of such tropical
AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
and subtropical forms as will bear a winter
confinement ; and nothing short of the neces-
sary public support need prevent this division
from becoming not only the first in New Eng-
land but one of the most important in the
THE MARINE AQUARIUM AT CITY POINT
ira^N the territory at City Point, now be-
ing reclaimed from the sea by the
Park Commissioners, is another spot
of about eight acres bordering upon the par-
tially inclosed bay at the Marine Park. This
affords a good opportunity for salt-water pools
and basins of considerable size, suitable for
seals and the smaller Cetacea, — dolphins, por-
zdOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
poises, and white Avliales, — and also for evad-
ing birds and all such animals as frequent the
borders of the sea and can be most advanta-
geously shown in the open air.
The more varied and interesting collections
will be placed in aquaria protected by a suit-
able building-. The visitor will first enter a
hall devoted to the exposition of the relations
of animals and plants to their surroiuidings,
together with a small synoptical collection
which, by the aid of dissections and proper
guides, will unfold the differences between the
great groups of animals and marine plants, and
the correlations between their habits and nat-
ural surroundino-s and also between these and
their structure. The suitability of organisms
to do the work they have to perform will be
illustrated in many ways, and clear ideas of
some of the fundamental laws of organic modi-
fication will be jjresented to intelligent visitors
and students. Thus, the changes which have
taken place in the structure of the descendants
of air-breathing land animals in order to fit
them for life in the sea will be abundantly
The main collection will show in separate
groups the animals found associated in the dif-
ferent oceanic areas and in the distinct zones
of life found between the shore and the deep sea.
Here again only the measure of the success
attending the undertaking will mark the limit
to Avhich it will be possible to go in displaying
the inhabitants of distant waters. The fauna
south of Cape Cod is in large part easy of ac-
quisition, the animals exceedingly varied and
even brilliant, and they would be well rejjre-
sented in special series of aquaria. Our own
marine fauna and flora will be kept apart and
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUAMIA FOR BOSTON
in the foreground, and its exhibition will as-
tonish all but the professional naturalist with
its strangeness and beauty, while even he will
receive new revelations of its extent and signifi-
cance. It is believed that neither of the other
divisions can compete with this in the novelty,
variety, and attractiveness of its displays. As
the halls will be lighted only through the
aquaria, the visitor will observe the creatures
as if himself beneath the sea.
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH
HE plan of establishing such Gardens
has been before the Natural History
Society for more than twenty years,
during all of which time a special connnittee
THEY CAN BE ESTABLISHED
has had the matter in charge ; but it is only
within a few years, since the Park Commission-
ers were found to be independently entertain-
ing similar plans, that any prospect seemed to
be open for the practical consummation of our
hopes. The correspondence between the Soci-
ety and the Commissioners will be found in the
several Reports of the latter body from 1887,
The commissioners have set apart the three
parcels of land referred to above for the pur-
poses mentioned, whenever the friends of the
Society shall have raised for the establishment
and endowment of the Gardens and Aquaria
the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. The
Council of the Society has further been author-
ized by the Society at large to proceed with
such establishment whenever the sum named
has been raised for that express purpose, with
certain provisions which guarantee the integrity
of the funds. Convinced that it would not be
wise to attempt to begin with the three pro-
posed divisions at the same time, the Council
AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
further obtained consent to the beginning of
operations at City Point with the same provi-
sions as before, whenever one third of the re-
quired sum shall have been obtained.
THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY THEIR PROPER GUARDIAN
UR Natunil History Society is an insti-
tution well known to the Boston pub-
lic. It celebrated its semi-centennial
ten years ago. It was through its initiative
that the State Survey in the last generation
was instituted, and its members were selected
to carry it out ; this they did to such good
purpose that it has served as a model to other
States, and some of the works produced are
regarded as classics. The Society obtained
from the State the land on which its buildino-
now stands, and it has so well merited the
confidence of the citizens of Boston that it has
received large endowments from them, and
notably the means of building its present
home. It has taken a prominent and effective
TANKS IN THE NAPLES AQUARIUM
ZOOLOGICAL GAB DENS
part in educational matters, as the reports of
the Superintendent of Schools and the Super-
visors will testify. It also places freely before
the public its treasures accumulated through
decades of hard work and arranoed with rare
skill. No other institution of the kind in the
country has manifested its activity in so many
ways or with greater success.
If such an establishment as the proposed
Gardens and Acpiaria is to be anything more
than a mere pleasure ground, either a new or-
ganization, expressly established for the })iu'-
pose, must be formed, or the work must be
undertaken by one already ecpiipped. It is
believed that besides the saving of the cost and
labor of a new organization, the confidence of
the public, without which the undertaking is
impossible, will be extended with greater free-
dom to a Society that has already proved its
AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
usefulness and its power to undertake a work
which is only an extension of its present opera-
tions. The Society, however, has no funds to
use in this direction, all that it now controls
being trust-funds devoted solely to such work
as it has already in hand. It has, therefore,
by a distinct vote determined that the new
undertaking must be supported through funds
obtained for that express purpose.
It is only just and proper to state that the
Society and its officers have entered upon this
undertaking with no desire or object beyond a
feeling of duty to the ])ublic, and they have
freely contributed much valuable time and
labor towards the attainment of this great ad-
dition to the cause of public education and en-
joyment in Boston ; success can give satisfac-
tion, but remuneration is not possible.
PUBLIC ADVANTAGES TO BE GAINED
deeper interest will living creatures prove.
Such an exhibition will give the city child,
Avhose knowledge of the world about him is so
pitifully meagre, a new and vivid enjoyment.
It will offer a healthful and instructive pastime
HE interest taken by the general pub-
lic in our natural history museums
must be seen to be appreciated ; and
if dead creatures and their bare skeletons can
attract multitudes of visitors, of how much
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
to many otherwise destined to become idlers.
It will open the eyes of all to the wonders and
attractions of earth, air, and sea, and be a
source of strength and life to the recovering'
invalid. It will plant deep in the hearts of the
people a shnple love of Nature, which, like all
refining- influences, will become a corrective
of mischief and wrong, and a source of pure
enjoyment. In the crowd of entertainments
catering- in a greater or less degree to evil pas-
sions, it will afford a nobler and purer, because
simpler and healthier, amusement. To many
it will be the beginning of a new and natural
life, while to the student of the laws of Nature
it will ott'er unparalleled fields for investiga-
The establishment of such institutions under
the immediate auspices of the Natural History
Society, and upon grounds leased of the Park
Commissioners for the special purposes herein
set forth, is a distinct assurance they will be so
conducted as to merit the approval of all good
citizens ; and we confidently anticipate that
when it has been shown Avhat these establish-
ments can fairly do they will be the recipients
of the utmost favor from those who possess
the means for their endowment.
WILL BOSTON RESPOND?
T is proposed to begin with the Marine
Aquarium at City Point, since it is
nearer the centre of population, and
will be on the whole the most attractive and
novel of the three divisions. Its situation can
be seen on the accompanying' plan. It is easily
reached. In a very short time the ground
will be ready for the erection of the needed
buildings, but no step requiring outlay can be
taken until one third of the final two hundred
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUABIA FOB BOSTON
thousand dollars is obtained ; and it is hoped
that many friends, new and old, o* the Boston
Society of Natural History, of the cause of ed-
ucation, and of this particular mode of in-
structing and elevating- the masses, will respond
with their contributions. It is no sense a
scheme for the enrichment of those interested
in it. Every means will be taken to have it
grow by its own strength, and every gain will
only enrich and enlarge it and its power of in-
struction and enjoyment. No cause not purely
charitable appeals to so many classes and con-
ditions of men. All employers of men and
women must be anxious to provide so commend-
able a source of rational enjoyment and recre-
ation for themselves and for their employees.
Every one interested in education must feel a
responsive chord vibrating in his heart. Every
public-spirited citizen will see in it an addition
to the forces which increase the intelligence of
the voter and thereby tend to make Boston a
more desirable place of residence.
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON
T is hoped that this simple statement
of facts will answer all the purposes of
a more elaborate appeal ; but any fur-
ther information will be gladly given by the
Secretary of the Society, Dr. J. Walter Fewkes,
who may be addressed at the Society's Museum
on Berkeley Street, or by the Treasurer, Mr.
Charles W. Scudder, whose office is at 4 Post
Office Square, and to whom contributions and
pledges may be sent, or by any member of the
Council whose names are hereto appended.
The Society will also gladly welcome to its
membership any willing to aid in this enterprise,
and otters to all a share and an interest in
the work it has on hand. Correspondence or
personal application in this direction is desired,
and may be addressed to the Secretary or to any
member of the Council.
Frederick W. Putnam, President.
8. L. Abbot.
George H. Barton.
Edward T. Bouvfc.
Thomas T. Bouvfe, Ex-President.
Henry P. Bowditch.
John Cumminos, Ex-Vice-President.
J. H. Emerton.
Edward G. Gardiner.
George L. Goodale, Ex-Vice-President.
Henry W. Haynes.
Ai.pheus Hyatt, Curator.
B. Joy Jeffries, Vice-President.
John Amory Jeffries.
Edward S. Morse.
William H. Niles, Vice-President.
Ellen H. Richards.
Charles W. Scudder, Treasurer.
Samuel H. Scudder, Ex-President.
William T. Sedgwick.
N. S. Shaler.
Charles J. Sprague.
D. Humphreys Storkr, Ex-Vice-President.
B. H. Van Vleck.
James C. White, Honorary Secretary.
J. Walter Fewkes, Secretary and Librarian.
A letter from the Council to the Park Conniiissioners, giving fuller details as to wliat is proposed to show in the three
exhibits at Franklin Park, Jamaica Pond, and Marine Park, can be had on application to the Secretary.
^rintttJ at tit Biotveiise l&rcs^, (STambriboe
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